This is the timeline of the Star Trek Divergent Universe, my own personal Star Trek universe. It is far from complete and I will continue to expand and revise it as I develop it.
An ecological disaster occurs on the world of Qo'Nos, rendering the planet a largely barren wasteland.
The Preservers arrive on Qo'Nos and relocate fourteen-thousand surviving inhabitants to another world to start over. The descendants of these survivors will eventually evolve into the Efrosians.
At this point in human history, the human race has colonized the solar system and terraformed Mars into an M-class world.
The Great Bird of the Galaxy, a human generation ship, is sent on a hundred-year voyage to the Alpha Centauri system.
The Great Bird finally arrives in the Alpha Centauri system. The inhabitants quickly move to establish a colony on the surface of Alpha Centauri's single M-class planet.
Zefram Cochrane, a Centauri human, invents the first primitive warp drive, a propulsive technology which allows spaceships to warp the fabric of space, enabling them to accelerate to light velocities.
The first warp-capable starship, the Phoenix, is built on Centauri and sent on a 4.3 light-year journey to re-establish contact with Earth.
The Phoenix arrives in the Sol system. From there, the Centauri share warp technology with the Terrans and regular contact between the two factions of humanity begins.
A significant advance in warp drive technology allows the Terrans and Centauri to create their first warp 2-capable starships.
Uniting, the Terrans and Centauri form the Earth-Centauri Confederation and begin establishing colonies on other worlds beyond the Sol and Alpha Centauri systems.
After over a century of genetic engineering and selective breeding, the Augments -- a new subspecies of enhanced humans -- are created.
The Augments stage a coup and take control of the Confederation.
The Eugenic Wars occur throughout Confederation space.
Seeking to escape the war, various humans on Earth, Centauri, and the various colonies leave Confederation territory for unknown space to find new homes on which to live. This human diaspora will eventually settle on countless worlds where they will evolve into distinct human and near-human cultures and races such as the Trill, the Deltans, the Onlies, the Betazoids, the Orion, the El-Aurians, etc.
After encountering a group of human diaspora, the felinoid Kzinti learn of the human race and the Confederation. Coming to the conclusion that humans are weak and easily defeated, they begin making plans to invade Confederation space.
The Man-Kzin Wars occur.
The Confederation makes first contact with an advanced race of peaceful cyan-skinned humanoids; these humanoids are the Vulkhansu AKA the Vulcans.
Working with the Vulcans, the Confederation refits the ships of its fleet with more advanced weapons, shields, and warp drives to gain an advantage over the Kzinti.
The Romulan War occurs.
SD 0 (6913 CE)
The Terrans, Vulcans, Centauri, Andorians, and Tellarites create the United Federation of Planets.
It is decided that Axanar -- an uninhabited planet which lies at the heart of Federation space -- will serve as the new capital world for the United Federation of Planets. As it will take one-hundred years of terraforming before the planet is ready for occupation, however, the five worlds decide on a stopgap solution; each of their planets will get to serve as the Federation capital, relocating the seat of power every ten years until the terraforming of Axanar is complete.
Axanar becomes the capital world of the Federation.
On Qo'noS, the long war between the tlhIngan and teqNos sects comes to an end when Kahless -- the warlord of the tlhIngan -- slays the teqNos warlord Morath. Following this event, the teqNos quickly capitulate to the tlhIngan, conceding all rights to the rule of the planet to their rivals with no further challenge. With this victory, the tlhIngan -- later known by the peoples of the Federation as the Klingons -- establish a new empire -- the Klingon Empire -- which will eventually grow to encompass hundreds of worlds beyond their system.
Under the decree of Kahless, the Klingon civilization adopts a rigid caste system. In the centuries and millennia to come, through the use of genetic manipulation and eugenics, the Klingons will diverge into several subspecies, each with their own distinctive physical and mental traits.
The transporter technology is invented.
While conducting an experiment with warp technology, Federation scientists uncover the existence of an extradimensional realm lying beyond the conventional universe. As is quickly ascertained, this realm -- dubbed submersion space (or subspace for short) -- could be used as a shortcut between points in realspace. This means that not only could subspace allow for FTL communication -- a technology the Federation has never been able to devise -- but it could also conceivably allow for FTL travel hundreds if not thousands of times faster than warp technology is currently capable of achieving. Following this amazing discovery, further investigation into the physics of subspace promptly begins.
Federation scientists discover a means of relaying transmissions through subspace, overcoming the light barrier which has thus far hampered communication between the far-flung worlds of the United Federation of Planets.
SD 18087 (25000 CE)
James T. Kirk begins his first five-year mission aboard the Constitution-class starship Enterprise.